2018 - 2019 Academic Catalog

Entrepreneurship

Entrepreneurship is one of the fastest-growing areas of study nationwide. This major provides students with the knowledge and skills to start and operate their own businesses, work for growth-oriented and innovative firms, work in family businesses, and bring entrepreneurial perspectives to their chosen fields. Entrepreneurship majors learn a broad range of transferable skills and gain strong competence in critical thinking, strategic management, and hands on business experience. There is a wide variety of Connected Learning opportunities both on and off-campus for Entrepreneurship students. Additionally, all students in the Entrepreneurship major participate in Service Learning through Buss 220, Marketing, which is a required course. Graduates receive a Bachelor of Science degree in Entrepreneurship.

By planning early, in consultation with an academic advisor, students may be able to reduce the time it takes to complete a bachelor’s degree in Entrepreneurship to 3 or 3½ years. 

The following goals and associated learning outcomes delineate what we strive for students to achieve when they complete the major program of study in Entrepreneurship. 

Goal 1: Application of Principles of Management
Upon completion of the major program of study in Entrepreneurship, students will be able to

  1. demonstrate a comprehensive level of knowledge in the area of organizational behavior
  2. demonstrate a comprehensive level of knowledge in the area of human resource management
  3. demonstrate a comprehensive level of knowledge in the area of information technology
  4. demonstrate a comprehensive level of knowledge in the area of the global economy
  5. demonstrate a comprehensive level of knowledge in the area of business strategy

Goal 2: Application of Business Information
Upon completion of the major program of study in Entrepreneurship, students will be able to

  1. apply quantitative research methods to various challenges faced by business organizations
  2. apply qualitative research methods to various challenges faced by business organizations
  3. integrate business information into effective decision making

Goal 3: Ethical Decision-making
Upon completion of the major program of study in Entrepreneurship, students will be able to

  1. identify ethical issues implicit in business
  2. evaluate and decide among alternative solutions to ethical problems

Goal 4: Professional skills
Upon completion of the major program of study in Entrepreneurship, students will be able to

  1. communicate effectively in writing for the discipline
  2. communicate effectively orally within the discipline
  3. work effectively in teams
Course Code Course Title Credits
Core Courses
BUSS101 Contemporary Issues in Business 3
BUSS201 Financial Accounting 4
BUSS202 Managerial Accounting 4
BUSS203 Financial Management 3
BUSS205 Legal Environment of Business 3
BUSS212 Management Information Systems 3
BUSS220 Marketing 3
BUSS224 Organizational Behavior 3
BUSS231 Entrepreneurship & Venture Creation 3
BUSS232 Operations Strategy 3
BUSS336 Human Resource Management 3
BUSS337 Managing the Growing Company 3
BUSS425 Special Topics in Entrepreneurship 3
BUSS440 Business Policy 3
BUSS497 Business Internship Seminar 4
ECON101 Principles of Econ-Micro 3
ECON102 Principles of Econ-Macro 3
MATH205 Calculus I 4
MATH208 Statistics 3
Choose 2 from the following:
BUSS208 Financial Statement Analysis 3
BUSS235 Ethics in Business 3
BUSS237 Contemporary Global Leadership 3
BUSS315 Emerging Global Markets 3
BUSS322 Marketing Communications 3
BUSS324 E-Business 3
BUSS329 New Product Development 3
BUSS330 Managing Change 3
BUSS341 Social Media Marketing 3
BUSS422 Global Marketing 3
Choose 1 from the following:
PSYC101 Psychological Perspectives (KP) 3
SOC101 Sociological Imagination (KP) 3

Major Requirements: 70 credits

A minimum of 120 credits is required for graduation. This total includes the Core Curriculum Requirements as described elsewhere in this catalog. Some courses required for the major meet Core Curriculum requirements. 
For a complete explanation of graduation requirements, see Graduation Requirements in the Undergraduate Academic Policies section of this catalog.


The following courses may require prior coursework depending upon Math placement:
Math205 Calculus I
Math208 Statistics

BUSS101 - Contemporary Issues in Business

This course is designed to familiarize students with various aspects of the business world. Areas covered include: private enterprise, forms of ownership, legal aspects, management, marketing, human resources, operations management, labor relations, and finance. In addition, students become aware of how business functions are integrated into an organization to achieve specific goals.

BUSS201 - Financial Accounting

This course provides students with the fundamentals of accounting processes and procedures used in business. Students learn how to identify and record business transactions. In addition, students learn how to create financial statements and how to become intelligent users of financial information.

BUSS202 - Managerial Accounting

In this course, students gain experience in the development and use of information within an organization. Course topics include: cost terms; production costing; cost allocation for planning and control; cost behavior patterns; cost-volume-profit relationships; budgeting; inventory planning and control; pricing decisions; and aspects of investment decisions. Prerequisite: BUSS 201 with a grade C or better.

BUSS203 - Financial Management

This course provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of finance. Various techniques of analysis that reveal the relationships of risk, return, and value are demonstrated. Topics include: financial reporting; long- and short-term forecasting; managing working capital; capital budgeting; and the nature of corporate securities and debt-equity mix. Prerequisites: BUSS 202 with a grade C or better & ECON 102.

BUSS205 - Legal Environment of Business

This course provides a working knowledge of everyday law as it applies to both business and personal needs. The primary focus is on contract law and property law.

BUSS207 - Fundamentals of Financial Planning

This course provides a foundation for understanding and using financial planning techniques. This framework is the basis for all financial decisions, large and small. Topics covered are personal financial planning, consumer credit, budgeting, investments, and banking procedures. Risk analysis regarding portfolio management and tax liabilities are also examined.

BUSS208 - Financial Statement Analysis

In this course, students will examine financial statements and other financial reports with a view towards using accounting information in making investing, lending, and other potential management decisions. Students explore methods of constructing, comparing, and analyzing these statements and reports and the various uses of such analyses. Prerequisite: BUSS202 with a grade of C or higher

BUSS209 - Computer Applications in Business

This hands-on course is designed to provide students with a fundamental knowledge and understanding of computer applications in business. A strong emphasis is placed on building competencies in industry-standard spreadsheet and database software applications.

BUSS210 - Federal Income Taxes

This course provides students with a basic understanding of the fundamentals of federal income tax laws as they apply to individuals, businesses, and not-for-profit, taxable entities. Students will explore a broad range of tax topics, emphasizing the role of taxation in business decision-making process, tax research, and tax planning. -Prerequsite: BUSS201 with a grade C or better

BUSS211 - Fundamentals of Financial Modeling

In this course, students will build applications and models in Excel to support financial analysis and decision-making. Students will begin by building financial documents using basic Excel applications and functions. They will then move into more advanced skills that include time value of money and statistical functions, text and date usage, regression, conditionals, data tables and random number generation. All techniques will be applied to the most common financial applications and models including present value, cost of capital, financial statement forecasting, and valuation. Also included are the preparation of charts and graphs for use in professional presentations and reports. Problem-solving cases will serve as the foundation for the course. Prerequisite: BUSS 202 with a “C” or better.

BUSS212 - Management Information Systems

This course takes a managerial approach to information technology concepts and applications. Given the pervasiveness of technology in today's world, professionals in various fields of endeavor often have a major responsibility for determining an organization's information needs and for designing and implementing information systems that support those needs. Students study concepts and issues related to information technology with the goal of understanding how it can be effectively used to improve an organization's over­all effectiveness and increase it's level of success. Prerequisite: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, SMGT102, or FASH101.

BUSS213X - Excel for Business

Excel is an electronic spreadsheet program used for storing, organizing and manipulating data. Excel and other programs have become essential to many of today’s businesses as the volume of data generated has increased dramatically and become critical to most business functions. This introductory course will assist students in developing and/or furthering basic Excel skills.

BUSS218X - Business Operations Simulation

This one-credit course utilizes the exciting business simulation program GoVenture CEO. It is a revolutionary business simulation where students manage companies on their own or in teams. Choosing from dozens of ready-to-play industries, students will engage in a simulation that models current events, historical successes or failures, and targets specific challenges or learning outcomes. Students manage their own strategies while monitoring competitive positioning, actions, and other market forces that arise. This simulation is appropriate for any major and any business student who wants a hands-on business management experience.Prerequisite: BUSS 101 or HEM 101

BUSS220 - Marketing

In this course, the fundamentals of marketing are explored for practical application in today's business environment. The process of creating value for customers by utilizing the tools of marketing -- market segmentation, targeting and positioning, marketing research and communications, product development, channels of distribution, and pricing -- are explored with a project-based, interactive approach. Additionally, there is a service learning component included in this course that enables students to further apply the course concepts while working to advance a participating non-profit organization. Prerequisites: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, FASH101, or SMGT102 AND ECON101.

BUSS224 - Organizational Behavior

In this course, students study individuals and their interactions within group settings as they affect efficiencies in business organizations. Group dynamics and intergroup dynamics are emphasized in relation to productivity and work satisfaction along with the examination of specific aspects of organizations that influence behavior. Areas covered include structure, leadership, and change. Teaching modalities include case studies and role-playing. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisite: PSYC101 or SOC101 or COM101

BUSS231 - Entrepreneurship & Venture Creation

Entrepreneurship drives global innovation and economic growth. This course exposes business students to the study of entrepreneurship and the venture creation process. Topics include analyzing new business opportunities, developing business propositions, new venture planning and financing, marketing activities, financial controls, and other topics relevant to the entrepreneurial process. Students interact with faculty, local entrepreneurs, and small business owners/managers. As a culmination activity of this course, students are responsible for the development and presentation of a business plan. Prerequisite: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, FASH101 or SMGT102

BUSS232 - Operations Strategy

This course examines how operations can be used as sources of competitive advantage. The class will focus on understanding the need to formulate an operational strategy (long-term plan) and making strategic operational decisions. The old view of operations management as the task of maintaining a comparatively static production or service facility has given way to one characterized by a need for renewed flexibility, relentless improvement, and the development of new capabilities at the operating unit level. As a result of this changing environment, the skills required of operations managers have changed as well. This course is based primarily on case studies supported by conceptual frameworks. Prerequisite: BUSS101

BUSS233 - American Enterprise Experience

This course examines the American enterprise experience from colonial times until the present. The course touches upon the business component of the American experience beginning with the individual artisan-merchant through the great innovators and organizers of the 19th and 20th centuries and beyond. The historical events, cultural changes, social upheavals, and political shifts that have influenced the development of the American business environment are the core of the study. Prerequisite: BUSS101, HEM101, FASH101, or SMGT102

BUSS235 - Ethics in Business

This course analyzes ethical issues that arise in a wide range of contemporary business practices, both domestically and globally. It is designed to stimulate critical thinking on ethical issues, corporate social responsibility, and professional challenges encountered in business. The course material enables students to recognize and manage ethical issues and to develop their own standards of integrity and professionalism as applied to the business world. Prerequisite: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, FASH101, or SMGT102

BUSS237 - Contemporary Global Leadership

In this course, students analyze what it means to be a global leader in the 21st century and identify the skills necessary to be successful in an increasingly global business climate. Students explore this question personally, collectively, and globally in a creative and collaborative atmosphere. Students examine classic as well as contemporary theories of leadership and how they apply to the dynamic global business culture. The course provides students with the opportunity to acquire perspectives and skills essential to successful management in the emerging markets that are increasingly becoming key contenders in world commercial enterprise. Prerequisite BUSS 224.

BUSS301 - Intermediate Accounting I

This course builds on concepts developed in Financial Accounting. Concentration is on the application of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) to the preparation of financial statements with an in-depth review of cash, receivables, inventories, and plant assets. The course also covers the concept of the time value of money and the application of present value techniques to accounting valuations. Prerequisite: BUSS 202 with a grade C or better.

BUSS302 - Intermediate Accounting II

This course is designed to continue the concepts of financial accounting and present a more thorough analysis of the requirements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board. Included in this course are earnings per share calculations, lease accounting, and pension accounting. The cash flow statement is also studied. Prerequisite: BUSS 301 with a grade C or better.

BUSS304 - Working Capital Management

This course explores working capital management, credit management, working capital funding, and the major sources of financing debt and equity. Students undertake financial analyses of theoretical models and real-world firms and organizations, recommend financing strategies, and present their findings by using management reporting methods. Prerequisite: BUSS203 with a grade C or Better

BUSS305 - International Accounting

This course addresses significant accounting matters experienced by multinational companies. Accounting matters include currency transactions and translational transfer price, and management planning and control. Prerequisite: BUSS 301 with a C or better.

BUSS306 - Accounting Information Systems

The course teaches conceptual, analytic and technical skills necessary to work efficiently and productively as an accountant or auditor in an automated environment. The course focuses on today’s typical business that is heavily dependent on information and how the business entity collects enormous volumes of data, stores that data and when needed, transforms that data into usable business information. The course involve hands on use of Microsoft Excel spreadsheet skills and will further develop these skills to use Excel's more advanced functions suitable for data storage and analysis. Hands on use of Microsoft Access is also utilized to teach data modelling skills. Prerequisite: BUSS202 with a C or better.

BUSS307 - International Finance

This course explores the ways and means to reduce financial risk involved in international financial management. The course deals with the interrelationship between the international monetary environment and financial planning for corporations with overseas operations. Students will analyze the effects on international financial planning of such factors as exchange rate fluctuations, currency restrictions, and tax regulations. Students will examine financial aspects of multinational businesses including foreign investment, trade, and transfer of funds. Prerequisite: BUSS203 with a grade C or Better

BUSS308 - Government & Not-for-Profit Accounting

This course introduces financial accounting and reporting issues related to state and local government and non-profit organizations, including universities and health care facilities. Prerequisite: BUSS201 with a grade of C or better.

BUSS309 - Fraud Examination

This course covers techniques for identification and detection of asset misappropriation schemes and fraudulent financial statements, who commits fraud and why, and controls to prevent and detect problems. Prerequisite: BUSS201 with a grade of C or better.

BUSS310 - Advanced Financial Management

This course builds on the concepts introduced in BUSS203 and focuses on financial decisions made within corporate environments. Financial risk and return, capital budgeting, valuation, capital structure, working capital management, and distribution policy are emphasized. Current topics in financial management will also be included. Prerequisite: BUSS203 with a grade of or better.

BUSS311 - Investments

This course explores the fundamentals of investing. The strategies used to create money from financial capital are thoroughly examined. Financial instruments such as stocks, bonds, mutual funds, futures, options, and commodities are explored. The measurement tools used to assign risk and rate of return, performance, and value are covered. Students learn how to develop, analyze, and maintain a portfolio. Regulatory and ethical issues are examined and considered in the decision-making process. Prerequisite: BUSS201 with a grade of C or better.

BUSS312 - Risk Management

The basics of risk management are covered in this course. Problems of liability and personal loss exposures of a business are examined. Private insurance programs such as health and life insurance, and employee benefit plans are examined and assessed. Prerequisite: BUSS203 with a grade of C or better.

BUSS313 - Business Negotiations

This course examines various negotiating tactics and techniques as they relate to different situations and environments. Particular attention is paid to buyer-seller communications, including negotiations of contracts and agreements. Students study the strengths and weaknesses of strategies used by both buyers and sellers. Prerequisites: BUSS 201, BUSS 220 and MATH 104.

BUSS315 - Emerging Global Markets

This course focuses on developing skills, strategies and insights crucial to conducting successful business operations in the emerging markets of Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Africa, including the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China. Globalization offers these countries the opportunity for unprecedented economic development. By participating in the international marketplace, emerging countries increase their chances of raising wages and incomes, accumulating wealth, and reducing poverty. These countries also provide opportunities for companies, mostly from developed countries, to extend their markets. In this course, students study the institutions of emerging markets that are relevant for managers; explore the differences in the contexts and roles of various actors (such as the government and NGOs); analyze opportunities and risks presented by emerging markets; and analyze the strategies of firms dealing with emerging markets. Prerequisite: BUSS101

BUSS319 - Cost Accounting

This course focuses on a typical firm’s cost data and how that data can transformed into information for business analysis and decision making. Topics include how to identify fixed versus variable cost, cost volume profit analysis, flexible budgeting, Activity Based Costing, and standard cost systems with detail variance analysis. Process and job order costing systems are examined in terms of how these systems are used to accumulate cost to determine accurate product or service costs and why this is necessary in setting product/service selling prices to maximize profits. Other topics include the numerous cost allocation processes that take place in the typical manufacturing and service industries, and transfer pricing within companies that are doing business internationally. Prerequisite: BUSS202 with a grade of C or better.

BUSS320 - Consumer Behavior

This course examines the behavior of individuals and markets in relation to the purchase decision, including post-purchase evaluation and con­sumption. A behavioral science approach is taken. Prerequisite: BUSS220

BUSS321 - Property and Liability Insurance

This course explores the fundamentals of commercial property and liability insurance including contracts, rating, underwriting, regulation and financial analysis of insurers. Prerequisite: BUSS203 with a grade of C or better

BUSS322 - Marketing Communications

This course focuses on a broad view of advertising dealing with planning, creation, and execution in relation to the marketing cycle. Topics include: organization and operation of the advertising agency; publicity; public relations; behavioral sciences as applied to advertising; budgeting; and planning. Prerequisite: BUSS220

BUSS323 - Retirement Planning & Employee Benefits

This course provides students with an understanding of the retirement planning process. Students develop an ability to counsel others on retirement and employee benefit decisions. Topics covered are social security, qualified retirement plans, corporate profit sharing plans, health insurance, group life insurance, group disability insurance, and deferred compensation. Prerequsite: BUSS203 with a grade of C or better

BUSS324 - E-Business

This course explores, in detail, how the Internet affects the buying and selling of goods and services in the marketplace. Topics include Internet and mobile business models, electronic commerce infrastructure issues, designing effective web sites, payment and security issues, and the legal and ethical challenges of electronic commerce. The course will culminate in the development of an e-business plan and webpage. Prerequisite: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, FASH101 or SMGT102

BUSS325 - Sales Principles

Students in this course will analyze salesmanship in modern business with emphasis placed on the principles and techniques of individual selling styles in both retail and wholesale markets. Topics covered include: dramatization of the sale presentation; the selling role; buyer characteristics and motivations; modern sales practices; corporate sales planning; sales-force policies; time and territory management; forecasting, budgeting; and expense control. Prerequisite: BUSS220

BUSS327 - Life, Health, and Disability Insurance

This course studies the financial implications of death, disability and retirement, and multiple types of life insurance and annuity contracts and their uses. Regulations of life and health insurers, insurer operations and functions, legal aspects, group and individual life and health insurance products including medical, disability income and long-term care policies are covered. Prerequsite: BUSS203 with a grade C or better

BUSS328 - Entertainment Marketing

This course will provide students with a framework for understanding the dynamics of several major sectors within the entertainment industry. Students will compare and contrast successful entertainment marketing strategies with traditional product-based companies. Entertainment Marketing surveys the strategy, techniques and communication media employed to market the range of entertainment available to the American audience. The course examines the organizations and people who conceive, create and distribute video, film, print, interactive and new technology within the framework of the entertainment promotion landscape. The course demonstrates how advertising, publicity, promotion, research and overall marketing campaigns are created and the impact on the creative and business operations of entertainment companies.The objective of this course is to give students an understanding of the marketing issues faced by entertainment companies, highlighting the experiential nature of the products and the fast-pace of change within the industry. Prerequisite: COM216 or COM302

BUSS329 - New Product Development

New products and services are crucial to successful growth and increased profits in many industries. A major goal of this course is to help students learn to use an analytic decision-making approach in developing and marketing new products and services that meet customer needs in the consumer, industrial, and service settings. At the end of the course, the student should understand the role of decision models in analytic marketing decision-making; be able to follow the basic steps in opportunity identification, design, testing, and implementation; and know how to read and interpret new product and service market research. Prerequisite: BUSS220

BUSS330 - Managing Change

This course examines the unique problems associated with managing organizations during mergers, reorganizations, and other times of change. Strategies to cope with change, as well as induce it, are examined. Prerequisite: BUSS 224.

BUSS331 - Money and Capital Markets

The course offers an extensive examination of the money and capital markets and their importance to the US and global economy. This course will provide students with analytic tools to assess risks faced by investors and savers interacting through financial institutions and financial markets, as well as strategies for assessing and controlling these risks. The course places a heavy emphasis on the study of interest rates due to its importance in all capital markets and as one of the key determinants of the price of any financial asset. Prerequisite: BUSS203 with a grade of C or better

BUSS332 - Cross Cultural Management

In this course, students will explore the process of cross-cultural management and the challenges of working internationally. The course focuses on international organizational behavior, human resource issues and practices in global organizations. The course is divided into three parts: The first focuses on understanding the cultural roots of behavior in organizations; the second on the Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management issues that are relevant to international managers; and the third seeks to prepare students for international assignments. Prerequisite: BUSS224

BUSS333 - Estate Planning and Trust

This course provides students with the knowledge base and analytical skills needed for effective financial planning and administration. Topics include wills, lifetime transfers, trusts, gifts, estate reduction techniques, tax implications in estate planning, business and inter-family transfers, dealing with incompetency, post mortem techniques, and the role of fiduciaries. Prerequsite: BUSS210 with a grade of C or better and BUSS207 with a grade of C or better

BUSS334 - Nonprofit Management

In this course students explore businesses that do not intend to maximize profit and retain it for future expenditures. Managers for nonprofit operations must operate under more regulated conditions and must be well prepared to interact within the public sector. Not-for-profit managers must be well versed in public policy and other regulations that affect them. Students will engage in real projects with non-profit organizations. Prerequisite: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, FASH101, or SMGT102.

BUSS336 - Human Resource Management

In this course, students will examine the staffing function of management including planning, recruitment, selection, training, motivation, appraisal, compensation, labor laws, and organizational development. The course also addresses current issues affecting the human resource manager, including the changing work force and need to increase productivity, as well as changes in the area of unions and affirmative action. Both class discussions and case studies are used to prepare students for the personnel and related tasks involved in a management position. Prerequisite: BUSS224

BUSS337 - Managing the Growing Company

This course focuses on the challenges and opportunities of managing a growing entrepreneurial venture. Using practical management techniques, students address the management of rapidly growing entrepreneurial firms. Through a variety of learning activities, including case studies, reading, and visiting entrepreneurs, students examine companies, often family-run, during dynamic transition. The course specifically addresses the challenges faced by companies in various stages of growth and the exceptional challenges of rapid growth. Prerequisites: BUSS 201 & BUSS 231.

BUSS341 - Social Media Marketing

This course takes an in-depth look at social networks, social media platforms and online advertising to offer students an advantage in many positions involving marketing, consulting and brand management, both on the buyer and seller side of social media. Students with an interest in entrepreneurship will also find the course useful as new businesses often rely on social media marketing. The course covers a number of topics including the differences and interaction between traditional and social media; two-sided markets and social media platforms (including verticals such as gaming, shopping and entertainment); basic theory of social networks online and offline (graph theory, sociology, information diffusion); consumer behavior and digital media; social media analytics and monitoring; brand strategies on social media; best marketing practices for paid and unpaid social media; and B2B marketing and social media. Additionally, students will have the opportunity to become Hubspot certified. Prerequisite: BUSS220

BUSS403 - Advanced Accounting

This course examines specialized topics in financial accounting. Problems associated with the partnership form of business organization, including partnership formation, division of income and losses, changes in ownership, and partnership liquidation are reviewed. Topics also include the subject of business combinations with emphasis on consolidated financial statements of parents and subsidiaries and elimination of intercompany transactions, accounting for foreign operations, and fund accounting as it relates to municipalities. Prerequsite: BUSS302 with grade of C or better and Senior Standing

BUSS406 - Financial Strategy

This is a capstone course utilizing lecture, discussion, and case analysis to define the process of financial management. The course of study presents the concepts of the advanced capital budget centering on decision-making concerning capital structure, dividend policy, leasing, mergers and acquisitions, reorganization, and international finance and exchange rates. Prerequisite: BUSS203 with a grade of C or better & Senior Standing

BUSS407X - Digital Branding

The art of good branding requires a meaningful promise, strong values and a consistent experience. As business is driven from traditional to digitally-driven models, brands must adapt and consider how they best respond without abandoning core principles. Students in Digital Branding will learn best practices on how companies translate brand tenets to a digitally-driven world, focusing on the online experience, social media and mobile platforms. In a team, project-based approach, students will also have the opportunity to apply best practices to develop digital branding strategies for those companies who may be falling behind. Prerequisite: BUSS220, COM221 or FASH310

BUSS408 - Auditing

This courses examines the impact of auditing on constituencies external and internal to organizations, especially stockholders and management. Students examine the role of both the independent public accountant and the internal auditor, and study various control and reporting techniques involved in auditing. Prerequisites: BUSS302 with a grade of C or better and Senior Standing

BUSS420 - Marketing Research

Students in this course will examine the process and tools involved in collecting, coding, and analyzing data. The course further integrates the application of computer software in compiling and interpreting statistical data in relation to marketing decisions, such as those related to market segmentation and distribution. Prerequisites: BUSS220 and MATH208

BUSS422 - Global Marketing

The complexity of operating in the global marketplace makes many demands on the marketer. The globalization of marketing takes place after the company has international experience in multiple markets. The three fundamental areas of corporate globalization are covered in this course: (1) integrate sourcing, production, and marketing; (2) allocate resources to achieve a balanced portfolio and growth; and (3) coordinate marketing activities across countries and regions. Importing, exporting, and licensing considerations are also explored. Prerequisite: BUSS220 with a grade of C or better.

BUSS425 - Special Topics in Entrepreneurship

This seminar offers an in-depth exploration of advanced entrepreneurship topics of current interest and importance. Using case studies and actual entrepreneurial ventures, students explore entrepreneurship with a focus on leadership, marketing, development, management, and growth of new business ventures. Students learn the practical skills needed to succeed as an entrepreneur and how to apply best practices for planning, initiating, and growing new companies. The course also emphasizes the analysis and evaluation of actual entrepreneurial ventures. Subjects vary from semester to semester. Prerequisites: BUSS 337 and Senior standing.

BUSS431X - Branding Strategy

The purpose of this course is to create an understanding of the role of branding in driving business growth and the larger role of brands in popular culture. Students will study examples of both for profit and non-profit brands from the 20th and 21st centuries to see what constitutes success and how brands stay relevant in terms of social, cultural, and technological trends. Students will learn the key processes entailed in developing a brand strategy and the elements that drive brand admiration. Students will apply these principles utilizing a project-based approach for a brand in development or an established brand in need of repositioning. Prerequisite: BUSS220

BUSS432 - Marketing Strategy

This course is designed to facilitate the formulation and implementation of marketing strategy. The course builds upon topics and concepts covered in more junior marketing courses. As part of the learning experience, students will engage in a simulation program with teams taking charge of a company within a competitive environment. Prerequisite: BUSS220 with a grade of C or better

BUSS440 - Business Policy

This capstone course requires students to apply a broad knowledge of management and administrative techniques to specific situations. An emphasis is placed on strategy formulation and implementation. The case study method is used. This course culminates in a formal professional presentation to industry professionals. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisite: Senior standing and Accounting, Entrepreneurship, Finance, International Business, Management or Marketing Major

BUSS497 - Business Internship Seminar

This internship for Entrepreneurship, International Business, Management and Marketing students is scheduled to take place during the student's senior year (juniors are permitted with permission). Students serve as interns for a total of 144 hours in a position related to their field of study. The hours are completed concurrently with weekly class meetings and course work. Detailed reports, reflective excersizes, weekly journal entries, a final comprehensive project, and other written requirements are completed throughout the internship process. The internship supervisor monitors each student's performance and visits each internship site as needed. Prerequisite: Business101 and Junior or Senior Standing

BUSS498 - Internship Seminar Accounting/Finance

A critical component of the internship experience is participating in a weekly seminar where students discuss and reflect on their experiences to gain a broader view of the workplace, contemporary issues and organizational trends, as well as their own developing abilities and career interests. This one credit course covers professional issues as they arise during the student's internship. Some of the topics covered include: supervision, boundary issues, self-care, stress management, and professionalism. Students are required to write a weekly reflective journal on their internship experience. Prerequisites: Junior or Senior standing, and a 2.0 cumulative average in all business prefix courses. This course is designated for Accounting or Finance majors only. Must be taken concurrently with BUSS499.

BUSS499 - Internship Accounting/Finance

The internship is scheduled to take place during the senior year. Students serve as interns for a total of 150 hours over a 12-week period, completed concurrently with BUSS 498. The internship supervisor monitors each student's performance and visits each internship site as needed. Prerequisites: Junior or Senior standing, and a 2.0 cumulative average in all business prefix courses. This course is designated for Accounting or Finance majors only. Must be taken concurrently with BUSS498.

ECON101 - Principles of Econ-Micro

This course is an introduction to the principles of the economic behavior of individuals, firms, and industries in the mixed economic system. Topics include consumer demand; elasticity; supply and costs of production; the allocation of economic resources; international trade; and the role of government in promoting economic welfare.

ECON102 - Principles of Econ-Macro

This course explores basic functions of the United States economy viewed as a whole and policies designed to affect its performance. Topics include economic scarcity; causes of unemployment and inflation; money and monetary policy; the impact of government taxation and spending; and the federal debt. Some consideration is given to international economic problems and to contrasting economic systems. Prerequisite: ECON 101.

ECON103 - Economics of Social Issues

This course examines a broad range of social issues from an economics perspective. Designed for non-business majors, the course provides an introduction to economic reasoning and to some basic economic concepts which are then used to analyze a variety of social problems. Possible topics include poverty, unemployment, agriculture, discrimination, crime, pollution, education, health care, social security, and third world development.

ECON206 - Global Economic Development

The goal of this course is to introduce the main issues of global economic development. Students will explore the problems facing developing countries of the world as they attempt to industrialize, develop their economies and raise the standards of living of their people. The course will address the following broad questions: What is the meaning of Economic development? Why some countries are rich while others are poor? What would explain the success of such East Asian countries as China? What are the key constrains that prevent poor countries, especially those in the African continent, from achieving progress? What are the strategies that poor countries can adopt to foster development?

ECON207 - Vietnam Immersion

This fall semester course is linked to two weeks of service-learning in Vietnam during the winter break. The course introduces students to the Vietnamese society today. It covers basic elements of Vietnamese politics, economic development, culture, history, language, literature, and arts. The experience in Vietnam includes working for non-profit organizations that deal with social problems. This course fulfills the Multicultural Area of Inquiry. Students must apply and may only register with the permission of the Vietnam program director.

ECON301 - International Trade & Finance

This course examines theory, tariffs, and import quotas; adjustment mechanisms, foreign exchange, and exchange controls are also covered. Additional topics include the theory of comparative advantage, the causes and consequences of imbalances in the balance of payments or exchange rates, and the evolution of the international monetary system. Prerequisites: ECON 101, ECON 102.

MAHT304 - Mathematics for Educators

Mathematics for Educators

MATH106 - Mathematical Reasoning

This course is the foundational course for mathematical and quantitative reasoning at Lasell College. Mathematical reasoning is the critical skill that enables a student to solve real-world problems involving quantitative analysis by making use of particular mathematical skills. Through the development of their mathematical reasoning skills, students will recognize the power of mathematics in its own right as well as its relevance in the real world. Students will develop and enhance their mathematical reasoning skills through a project/application based curriculum supported by readily available current technological tools and topics that will include, but not be limited to, the following: solving systems of equations, linear programming, statistical, and graphical data analysis.

MATH107 - College Geometry

This course is an introduction to the essentials of Euclidean geometry. Topics covered include: reasoning in mathematics, the relationship between algebra and geometry, analytic geometry, proofs and constructive triangles, circles, quadrilaterals, polygons, surfaces and solids and historical notes about famous geometricians. Prerequisite: MATH 106 with a grade of C or better or demonstrated competency through placement testing.

MATH109 - Modern Mathematics (KP)

This course is an introduction to mathematics developed in the last 100 years. The course connects recently-discovered mathematics with current, real-world problems. Aesthetic elements of mathematics are emphasized. Topics may include the mathematics of voting, sharing, touring, games, networks, scheduling, money, symmetry, fractal shapes, descriptive statistics and probability. The course is appropriate for students majoring in Communication, Criminal Justice, English/History/Humanities-with Secondary Ed, English, Environmental Studies, Fashion Design, History, Hospitality and Event Management, Humanities, Human Services, Law and Public Affairs, Legal Studies, Psychology, Sociology, or Sport Management. Prerequisite: MATH 106 with a grade of C or better or through placement testing.

MATH116 - Merchandising and Financial Mathematics

This course focuses on retail mathematics. Topics include simple and compound interest, the time-value of capital, annuities, amortization, sinking funds, bond and investment, business problem-solving and decision making. Other topics include profit, loss, and break-even analysis, pricing, inventory, and merchandise planning. The course introduces basic theories of statistics. Prerequisite: MATH 106 with a grade of C or better or through placement testing.

MATH203 - Precalculus

This course prepares students for the study of calculus, physics and other courses requiring precalculus skills. Included is solving systems of equations, the analysis and graphing of linear, quadratic, polynomial, exponential, logarithmic, rational functions, the unit circle, and triangle (right and non-right) trigonometry. Prerequisite: MATH 106 with a grade of C or better or demonstrated competency through placement testing. Restrictions: not open to students who have completed 205, 206, or any 300 level mathematics course successfully.

MATH205 - Calculus I

This course is an introduction to limits, continuity, and methods of differentiation. Application to problems in business management and physical science is emphasized. Prerequisite: MATH 203 with a grade of C or better or demonstrated competency through placement testing. Restrictions: not open to students who have completed MATH 206, or any 300 level mathematics courses.

MATH206 - Calculus II

This is a continuation of Calculus I. Includes graphical and analytic integration, partial differentiation, and solving differential equations. Applications include business, biological sciences, and physical sciences. Prerequisite: MATH 205 with a grade of C or better or demonstrated competency through placement testing. Restrictions: not open to students who have completed MATH 320, MATH 328, or MATH 330.

MATH207 - Applied Trigonometry

This course is an in-depth study of trigonometry with attention to theory, proofs, modeling, and history. Trigonometric and related functions are used to model, analyze, and solve real-life problems. Applications are chosen from disciplines such as agriculture, architecture, astronomy, biology, business, chemistry, earth science, engineering, medicine, meteorology, and physics. Topics covered include a review of trigonometric functions, right triangle trigonometry, analytic trigonometry, vectors and dot products, complex number theory, trigonometric forms of complex numbers, exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric models, Gaussian and logistic growth models, conic sections, and polar equations of conics. Prerequisite: MATH 205 with a grade of C or better.

MATH208 - Statistics

This is an introductory course in descriptive and inferential statistics. Topics include: data analysis, and graphical methods of describing data, measures of central tendency and variability, probability, the normal distribution, sampling distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, correlation, and regression analysis. Prerequisites: MATH 106 with a grade of C or better or demonstrated competency through placement testing and ENG 102.

MATH209X - Business Statistics

This is an introductory course in descriptive and inferential statistics focused on applications in business. Topics include: data analysis, and graphical methods of describing data, measures of central tendency and variability, time-series analysis, trend and seasonality analysis, simple and multiple correlation and regression analysis, sales and cost forecasting, probability, expected monetary value, and the Normal distribution. Prerequisites: MATH 106 with a grade of C or better or demonstrated competency through placement testing and ENG 102. With permission of the instructor only.

MATH210 - Math Applied to Science

This course provides a review of fundamental mathematical concepts such as probability and trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions and explores the ways that these topics and techniques have been applied to investigations in architecture, calculus, exponential growth and decay, logarithmic scales, earthquake analysis, astronomy, biology, medicine, genetics, radiocarbon dating, chemistry, and Newtonian physics. The course is designed to demonstrate the power and utility of mathematics and explores the development of mathematics during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, especially in Greek, Hindu and Arabic cultures. Prerequisite: MATH 205 with a grade of C or better.

MATH212 - Finite Mathematics

The focus of this course is to develop mathematical models and to demonstrate the utility of various mathematical techniques that are most applicable to the creation of computer algorithms. Topics include functions and models, linear regression, solving systems of linear equations using matrices, matrix algebra and Leontief Input-Output models, linear programming (graphical and simplex methods), principle of duality, estimated and theoretical probability and Markov Chains. Applications are derived from current real world data and require mastery of Microsoft Excel and graphing calculator technology. Prerequisite: MATH 206 with a grade of C or better.

MATH215X - Discrete Math

Topics will include logic, proofs, algorithms, counting, recurrence relations, graph theory, trees, networks, Boolean algebra, and automata.Prerequisite: C or better in MATH 205

MATH301 - Mathematical Modeling

Mathematical ModelingPrerequisite: C or better in MATH 205, 206, and 208

MATH303X - Problem Solving

This course will be an exploration into the mathematics exemplified in high quality high school and undergraduate mathematics competitions and mathematical research. The emphasis will be placed on building a repertoire of mathematical strategies and tactics, then applying these methods in unfamiliar situations. Topics will include: Combinatorics, Binomial Theorem, Conditional Probability, Roots of Unity, Symmetric Polynomials, Polynomial Interpolation, and topics in Euclidean and non-Euclidean Geometry. Students will hone their ability to solve mathematical problems through hands-on practice and obtain an understanding of the strategies, tactics, and tools of the problem solver as illustrated by the textbook and the instructor. Strategies and tools for solving problems include, but are not limited to: •Draw a Diagram•Systematic Lists•Eliminate Possibilities•Matrix Logic•Look for a Pattern•Guess and Check•Sub Problems•Unit Analysis•Solve An Easier Related Problem•Physical Representations•Work Backwards•Venn Diagrams•Finite Differences

MATH304 - Mathematics for Educators

This course engages students in mathematical concepts through examples, investigations, and active problem solving explorations. Content is drawn from subject matter knowledge required for elementary and early childhood licensure, with emphasis on number theory and operations. This course is for students seeking elementary or early childhood licensure. Concurrent enrollment in ED 335 is required.

MATH307 - Calculus III

This course is an introduction to sequences and series, parametric and polar curves, vector functions, advanced techniques of differentiation and integration. Prerequisite: MATH 206 with a grade of C or better.

MATH320 - Differential Equations

This is an introduction to the many ways of solving various types of differential equations with emphasis on theory, methods of solution and applications. Topics include solutions of first, second and simple higher order differential equations, homogeneous and non-homogeneous equations. Prerequisite: MATH 206 with a grade of B- or better.

MATH322X - Special Topics in Mathematics

Special Topics in Mathematics

MATH325 - Linear Algebra

This is an introductory course in linear algebra blending the requirements of theory, problem solving, analytical thinking, computational techniques, and applications. Topics include in-depth treatment of matrix algebra, linear systems, vector spaces, linear transformations, determinants. Applications and modeling of real phenomena in transportation systems, economics, connectivity of networks, and graph theory. Prerequisite: MATH 206 with a grade of C or better.

MATH328 - Mathematics Applied to Management

This course explores the art of mathematical modeling of managerial decision problems and the science of developing the solution techniques for these models. Topics include management science techniques used in today’s businesses, e.g., break-even analysis, presentation models, linear programming, transportation and assignments problems, decision theory, forecasting and inventory models, Markov analysis, and solution of nonlinear models in business using calculus-based optimization. Prerequisite: MATH 206 with a grade of C or better.

MATH330 - Mathematical Modeling

This is an application-oriented course on how to solve real word problems from the social, medical and life sciences, business, and economics by set­ting up a mathematical model of the situation and then developing techniques for analyzing these models and solving them. Topics include the modeling process, linear models, financial models, modeling using proportionality, fitting linear and nonlinear models to data graphically, the least-squared criterion, linear programming models, modeling using the derivative, matrix and probability models, Markov chain models, and modeling interactive dynamic systems. Prerequisite: MATH 206 with a grade of C or better.

MATH338 - Mathematical Statistics

In this introduction to statistical theory, the roles probability and statistics play in business analysis and decision making are investigated. Topics include probability distributions, statistical inference, sampling distribution theory, and applications. Prerequisite: Math 206 with a grade of C or better.

MATH399 - Capstone Seminar

In this capstone course, Students investigate mathematics from a variety of fields and choose a topic for a mathematics project in their Field of Application. Mathematical methods for analysis, modeling, prediction, and/or problem solving are discussed. Students demonstrate knowledge of a substantial area of mathematics and present their work at a department seminar or the Connected Learning Symposium.

MATH499 - Internship

The internship seminar is a work or research experience where students combine theory and practice.

PSYC101 - Psychological Perspectives (KP)

In this course, students learn to think like psychologists as they study classic and contemporary topics in human behavior, feeling, and thought. Students learn to apply psychological perspectives of thought, including biological, cognitive, sociocultural, humanistic, psychodynamic, and behaviorist, to better understand the human experience. Students will learn to use these perspectives to explore how individual behavior is influenced by and influences one’s biology, family, community and society. Topics may include human development, personality, psychopathology, human relationships, language, memory, perceptual processes, and intelligence, among others.

PSYC104 - Positive Psychology

Historically, much of Psychology has focused on decreasing maladaptive emotions and behaviors (neurosis, disorders, stress, aggression, etc.). This focus has largely ignored more optimal functioning like happiness, optimism, and life satisfaction. In recent decades more scientific research has aimed at promoting and sustaining psychological health. The emerging field of Positive Psychology is the study of how human beings prosper and overcome adversity. Its goal is to identify and enhance human strengths and virtues and allow individuals and communities to thrive. This introductory-level course will detail the history of this emerging field and focus on current research in social and positive psychology on happiness, virtue, and personal development. The course will explore research that has helped highlight factors that promote and sustain psychological health. Additionally, we will look at tools and techniques that have been shown to help cultivate thoughts and behaviors that effectively contribute to well being. This coursewould substitute for PSYC101 (Psychological Perspectives) whenever that class is needed as a pre-requisite for an upper-level class but can be taken in addition to PSYC101.

PSYC111 - Generations in America

This course offers a social-developmental, multidisciplinary overview of issues related to the expanding age population in the United States. Students examine aging stereotypes, characteristics of aging populations, and the impact of age-related forces on individuals in American society. The course is geared toward students in a variety of disciplines and provides a knowledge base that can be applied to other areas of study.

PSYC201 - Psychology of Drugs & Behavior

The course examines the relationship between drugs and behavior, including evidence about the effects of drugs on the brain. Several classes of drugs, including chemically or psychologically addictive substances, psychoactive and therapeutic agents, as well as recreational drugs, are examined. Drug use is related to psychological variables such as personality structure and interpersonal relationships, and theories of addictive processes and factors influencing drug use are examined, as are treatment strategies. Prerequisite: PSYC 101.

PSYC202 - Psychology of Personality

This course introduces students to a variety of the most important theories of personality: i.e., Freud, Jung, Adler, Rogers, and others. Case studies are examined with the intent of making theories more practical and useful. Prerequisite: Any 200 level psychology course.

PSYC205 - Human Sexuality

This course is designed to introduce factual information about gender identity and gender role theories, sexual preference and sexual orientation, and psychosexual development. The course examines issues related to research on human sexuality and behavior, as well as sexual education, sexual disorders, and societal impacts on sexuality. Students are challenged to think critically about many issues surrounding human sexuality and all of its manifestations. Prerequisite: PSYC 101.

PSYC206 - Special Topics in Psychology

This course provides for specialized offerings in psychology in order to allow faculty and students to explore issues that meet special interests. Courses could be offered at the 200, 300, or 400 levels, depending on work required and announced prerequisites.

PSYC209X - Psyc of the Black American Experience

This course is an introduction to the psychological experience of Blacks in the United States, including the historical, sociopolitical, and cultural influences that shape personality and mental health in community, family, and individual contexts. Connections between Africa, the Caribbean, and Black America will be examined with respect to culture, belief systems, and values. At the same time, we will also explore the many differences in history, culture, and experience within numerous groups and individuals of African-descent in the U. S. Prerequisite: PSYC101

PSYC218 - Dynamics of Small Groups

This class examines the basic theory and application necessary to understand and facilitate small groups. Topics may include group types, formation, roles and stages; group process; cultural awareness; group interventions and ethics within the field of psychology and human service; therapeutic value of groups; and the family, classroom, and peers as small groups. Prerequisite: PSYC 101 or SOC 101.

PSYC220 - Social Psychology

This is an introduction to the study of social interactions from a psychological perspective. Research reviewed focuses on topics such as: social perception, group interaction, attitude formation, attitudinal change, aggression, conflict, and pro-social behavior. Prerequisite: PSYC 101.

PSYC221 - Child Development

This course examines the physical, cognitive, linguistic, social, and emotional development of the child from birth to adolescence. The contributions of social and cultural experiences as well as the role of biological factors in development are examined as are major theories of development. Students are introduced to the research approaches used to study human development and may be required to carry out observations in various settings. Prerequisite: PSYC 101.

PSYC222 - Social Psychology in Film

This course uses film to examine social psychological concepts and research and provides an opportunity for students to explore how people influence and are influenced by their social relationships, communities, and larger society. Films illustrate a range of social encounters that are examined from a social psychological perspective. Topics include conflict, love, personal and group behavior, prejudice, roles, privilege, and oppression. NOTE: This course meets the social psychology requirement for Social Sciences majors. Prerequisite: PSYC 101 or SOC 101.

PSYC223 - Adolescent Psychology

This course provides a survey of contemporary knowledge of the human brain, examining normal developmental brain processes and common brain functions. The course also covers common disorders and emphasizes understanding the impact of atypical brain development and the consequences of brain trauma. Intervention strategies and treatment are included. Prerequisite: PSYC101

PSYC226X - Living & Learning with Dementia

Careers in aging are one of the fastest growing fields for students with a background in psychology, human services, and related areas. . Do you want to explore working with older adults? Do you have family members or friends who has experienced memory loss as they have aged and you want to learn why and how to help them? People in our society have the opportunity to live very long lives; however, with age comes the possibility that some individuals will experience cognitive changes like those associated with dementia (e.g., Alzheimer’s Disease). In this course, students will learn about the bio-behavioral determinants of these changes along with their social and personal implications. Drawing on a dementia-friendly framework, students will also learn to design and lead interactive activities with older adults living at Lasell Village who have experienced cognitive change, offering everyone an opportunity to learn from each other in a collaborative pre-professional class setting.

PSYC240 - Sport Psychology

This course examines settings such as school, recreational, and professional where sport activities occur. It covers topics such as motivation, anxiety, competition, cooperation, gender issues, and age and developmental level in relation to sport activities. Behavioral problems such as substance abuse and eating disorders, along with psychological factors in prevention and treatment of injuries are included. Prerequisite: PSYC 101.

PSYC241 - The Psychological Life of Girls & Women

This course utilizes intrapersonal, psychosocial, and sociocultural perspectives to explore the psychological strengths and problems experienced by girls and women. Topics may include the mental health system, eating disorders, depression, women in families, violence against women, friendship, identity and diversity, immigrant experiences, biological influences, sexuality, issues at school and in the workplace, leadership, and research bias. Literature is examined critically for gender, racial, ethnic, and sexual preference biases, power dynamics, and limitations imposed on both females and males by gender imperatives. Prerequisite: PSYC 221 or PSYC 223, or permission of the instructor.

PSYC242X - Health Psychology

This course is a comprehensive study of the relationship between behavior and health including psychological factors in the development of and coping with disease. Students will learn about the biological, psychological, and social context of health and illness with a focus on maintainance of physical and emotional wellness. Topics covered may include stress, addictions, nutrition, eating disorders, adjustment, pain, pediatric health, aging and/or the psycholgocial impact of specific diseases.

PSYC302 - Biological Basis of Behavior

This course examines current research in the fields of biology, neuroscience, and psychology that explain the role of neural mechanisms in evoking and controlling human behavior. Topics include: thirst and hunger, sleep and arousal, sexual behavior, emotion, aggression, learning, memory, and mental disorders. Prerequisite: PSYC 101.

PSYC304 - Sensation & Perception

It is estimated that our five senses take in 11,000,000 bits of information per second, yet we weed out much of this information. Our unique ability to sense but selectively perceive allows us to survive and live our life without being bombarded by information. In this class, students will experience and examine how humans sense and perceive the world. Topics covered will include the sensory pathways, perceptual processing, and how we create meaning from our senses. We will discuss the orienting senses, skin senses (such as touch and pain), chemical senses (such as smell), hearing, vision, and the perception of time. Perceptual processes will include physiological, psychophysical, ecological, motivational, and computational. Pre-requisite: PSYC101

PSYC306 - Special Topics in Psychology

This course provides for specialized offerings in psychology in order to allow faculty and students to explore issues that meet special interests. Courses could be offered at the 200, 300, or 400 levels, depending on work required and announced prerequisites.

PSYC307 - Forensic Psychology

This course deals with the application of psychological knowledge to the judicial process and the criminal justice system. Topics covered include effects of defendant, juror and case characteristics on verdicts, variables affecting eyewitness accuracy, identification and testimony, and the role of forensic psychologists in competency and criminal responsibility assessments as well as criminal profiling. Prerequisite: CJ 201 or PSYC 101.

PSYC308X - Black Psychology

This course is designed to introduce the varied psychological experiences of Black individuals, including the cultural, sociohistorical, and political influences that shape personality and mental health in community, family, and individual contexts. The course will examine the experiences of Black individuals living in the United States, but will also draw strong connections to the experiences of Black individuals throughout the African Diaspora including Africa, the Caribbean, South America, and Western Europe. Several topics will be explored within the Black psychology paradigm including racial identity, racism and discrimination, kinship and family, religion and spirituality, and achievement and schooling. Throughout the course, a central objective will be to consider how knowledge of such topics can be used to promote mental health and wellness among these populations. Students will be strongly encouraged to discuss current topics and controversies as they relate to the Black psychology paradigm, and to use course material to design a service learning project for the neighboring community. Prerequisite: PSYC 101 or SOC 101 or permission of instructor

PSYC316 - Psychology of Diversity

This course explores diversity and its relation to identity, relationship, and power. Areas of diversity that may be a focus of the course include race, class, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, immigration status, disabilities, aging and/or health status. Students study diversity on micro, meso and macro levels including perspectives on individual and group identity, prejudice and discrimination, and psychological well-being. Students are challenged to explore their own identities and the assumptions they make about various forms of diversity. Prerequisites: Any 200 level Social Science course.

PSYC318 - Abnormal Psychology

This course examines the wide range of personality and behavioral disorders. Both traditional and contemporary theories of psychopathology are reviewed. Emphasis is also placed on the tools, techniques, and process of both the diagnosis and the treatment of various disorders. Prerequisite: PSYC 202 or PSYC 220.

PSYC322 - Abnormal Child Development

This course examines common psychological disorders that affect children and adolescents. Students review factors that contribute to emotional, behavioral, cognitive and social problems in children and adolescents, as well as specific diagnostic criteria of psychological disorders. In addition, treatment of childhood disorders is discussed. Prerequisite: PSYC 221.

PSYC323 - Brain Function & Dysfunction

This course provides a survey of contemporary knowledge of the human brain, examining normal developmental brain processes and common brain functions. The course also covers common disorders and emphasizes understanding the impact of atypical brain development and the consequences of brain trauma. Intervention strategies and treatment are included. Prerequisite: PSYC101

PSYC328 - Cognitive Processes

This course studies the ways that humans learn, remember, communicate, think, and reason. Emphasis is on the role of experimental data in development and evaluation of cognitive theories. Prerequisite: PSYC 101 & MATH 208

PSYC331 - Experimental Design in Psychology

This laboratory course covers concepts of the scientific method in psychology including the logic of experimental and correlational designs, issues of control, sampling, measurement of variables, ethical issues in research, use of online professional search procedures, and writing in APA style. As part of the lab, students carry out an experiment and learn to use SPSS to create a database and perform statistical analyses. Prerequisites: MATH 208 and either PSYC 101 or SOC 101 or approval of Dept Chair.

PSYC333 - Research Assistantship

This course is designed to enable 1-3 students to assist a faculty member who is engaged in research. The faculty member mentors the student(s) through the research process. The process may involve some or all of the following components: Literature review of previous research on the topic, development of the research proposal and project design, development of any materials needed for the research, completion of IRB application, follow-through with the IRB recommendations and approval process, implementation of the research, analysis of the data, and presentation of the work through writing, conference presentation, or Lasell presentation. Prerequisites: SOC 331 or PSYC 331 and Permission of Department Chair. Students may enroll in the course for up to two semesters.

PSYC345 - Assessment of Individual Differences

This course studies a wide variety of tests and measurements used to assess intelligence, aptitude, achievement, and personality in clinical and counseling psychology, in education, and in business. Consideration of the history and theory of these tests is complemented by discussion of practical concerns related to their selection, their administration, and their interpretation in specific settings. Prerequisites: MATH 208 and PSYC 101.

PSYC406 - Special Topics in Psychology

This course provides for specialized offerings in psychology in order to allow faculty and students to explore issues that meet special interests. Courses could be offered at the 200, 300, or 400 levels, depending on work required and announced prerequisites.

PSYC714 - Psyc of Sport, Injury & Rehabilitation

This course is designed to provide an understanding of the theory and application of psychology of sport injury, and rehabilitation. Topics covered include cognitive appraisal, emotional response, behavioral response, motivation, mental skills training and use, psychological antecedents of injury, adherence to rehabilitation/exercise, sociocultural factors and psychology of injury, and research methods related to the psychology of sport, injury, and rehabilitation.

SOC101 - Sociological Imagination (KP)

In this course we explore the connection between our personal troubles and public issues. How are our lives shaped by our social positions in society – our social class, race, gender, sexual orientation, age, and more? How do the members of different groups view each other and interact with each other? Why do inequalities exist and how do these affect us? How does culture shape our behavior, and why do religions, schools, families, and other institutions remain stable but also change over time?

SOC102 - Women and Gender in Social Context(KP)

his course is designed to help students develop a critical framework for examining feminist thought and gender-related social processes. Through the lens of the Sociological Imagination the course examines the ways in which sex and gender are socially constructed, how that shapes group and individual behavior and the ways in which power manifests in inequality and exploitation, as well as the agency of individuals and groups to bring about change.

SOC206 - Food and Culture

In this course, students study "food ways"; that is, how food and eating reflects and impacts social life.   The course examines the beliefs, rituals, norms, and subcultures associated with food choice.   Further, we look at food in the larger contexts of politics, the economy, and cultural survival.  Prerequisite: SOC 101 or PSYC 101

SOC207 - Wealth & Poverty

Why are millions of people poor in this rich country? Why are the richest 1% getting so much wealthier? One focus of the course is how the rules of the economy have changed in the last 30 years to favor wealthy individuals and corporations. How can unjust economic policies be changed? The second focus of the course is on the power of the federal government to outlaw some exploitive practices and promote shared prosperity. The US Senate in particular has a powerful influence on economic inequality, for better or for worse. Students will evaluate Senators’ policy positions related to wealth and poverty, and articulate their own opinions about controversial economic policy debates.

SOC208 - Special Topics in Sociology

This course examines different topics from a sociological perspective with the goal of allowing faculty and students to explore issues that meet special interests. Courses could be offered at the 200, 300, or 400 levels, depending on the required and announced prerequisites.

SOC212 - Wellness & Society

This course explores the social dimension of health and illness. Both health and illness vary across times and cultures – and this is related to how we define “normal”. Our wellbeing is also closely related to our position in society – socio-economic status, race, gender, class, ethnicity, and physical ability impact life chances, lifestyles, access to care, and attitudes towards health and illness. This course therefore covers the social distribution of illness; health disparities; global comparisons in the health of populations; the social construction of illness; the structure of health care systems and institutions; and various historical and contemporary health care debates.Prerequisite: SOC101 or PSYC101

SOC214 - Family Diversity

This course explores the meaning of "family" in a historical and cross-cultural context - it looks at the way families and households are constructed, and at how these institutions are impacted by social forces including demographic, ideological, and economic changes in societies. Family diversity is discussed in the context of social constructions such as race, class, and gender. Current themes in family sociology that are covered include, amongst others, sexuality, marriage, parenting, violence, divorce and remarriage, and family policy. Prerequisite: SOC 101.

SOC221 - Contemporary Social Problems

This course examines conditions and issues that result in tension and disorder. Examples are drawn primarily from American society include: labeling and social control of deviants, oppression of minorities, poverty, violence, ageism, and ecological concerns. Prerequisite: SOC 101.

SOC223X - Social Movements

You are breathing clean air right now thanks to the environmental movement. Maybe you can vote thanks to the Civil Rights or women’s suffrage movement. And don’t forget the labor movement, the folks who brought you the weekend! What inequities and crises in today's society will social movements address next? In this course, students will study contemporary social problems and the solutions that can be found by people gathering together into movements for change. This course will bring US and global movements to life through videos, photos, stories, interactive exercises, writing and discussion. By the end of the course, students will understand the strategic choices that contribute to movement success or failure in solving social problems.

SOC301 - Race & Ethnicity

This course examines the sociological constructs of race and ethnicity with a primary emphasis on people living in the United States. Topics include: the origins and consequences of racial/ethnic discriminations; immigration policies; movements for integration and separatism; the role of class, religion, and gender on issues of race/ethnicity; the impact of widely differing cultural heritages on our national life: and specific present day problems and trends including relationships betwen people of different racial and ethnic identification. Prerequisite: Any 200 level Social Science course.

SOC307 - Action & Social Justice

How can students make a difference? Small student groups waging brief action campaigns have won victories on racism, climate change, education budget cuts, sexual assault and many other social justice issues . In this hands-on course, students will together pick one injustice, develop achievable goals, and design and carry out a pressure campaign. Working in teams, students will practice persuasive communication with off-campus decision-makers, nonprofit organizations working on the same issue, the media, and the public, as well as with the Lasell community. Students will learn many skills needed for future community engagement: strategizing, meeting facilitation and group decision-making, public relations and social media advocacy, lobbying, coalition-building and event planning. Injustices confronted in this course will vary from semester based on student interest as well as on social justice issues arising in the community. Pre-requisites: PSYC101 or SOC101 or permission by instructor.

SOC308 - Special Topics in Sociology

This course examines different topics from a sociological perspective with the goal of allowing faculty and students to explore issues that meet special interests. Courses could be offered at the 200, 300, or 400 levels, depending on the required and announced prerequisites.

SOC310 - Sociological Perspectives

This course introduces classical and contemporary perspectives in sociology. Theories are examined as explanatory tools in the understanding of social structure and social change, and as reflections of the societal conditions from which they emerged. Theories are evaluated in terms of their applicability to contemporary issues in society. Prerequisites: Any 200 level Sociology course and Junior or Senior standing.

SOC331 - Research Methods in the Social Sciences

This laboratory course introduces students to the basic methods used in sociological research. Topics include scientific method, measurement, sampling, experiments, survey research, and qualitative approaches such as content analysis and field studies, and ethical issues in conducting research. As part of the lab, students learn to use SPSS to perform statistical analysis and to access and draw upon large data sets. Students learn to use professional online search procedures and write reports in accepted professional formats. Prerequisites: MATH 208 and either PSYC 101 or SOC 101 or approval of Dept Chair.

SOC333 - Sociology Research Assistantship

This course is designed to enable 1-3 students to assist a faculty member who is engaged in research. The faculty member mentors the student(s) through the research process. The process may involve some or all of the following components: Literature review of previous research on the topic, development of the research proposal and project design, development of any materials needed for the research, completion of IRB application, follow-through with the IRB recommendations and approval process, implementation of the research, analysis of the data, and presentation of the work through writing, conference presentation, or Lasell presentation. Prerequisite: SOC 331 or PSYC 331 and permission of Department Chair. Students may enroll in the course for up to two semesters.

SOC335 - Social Policy

This course examines historical and contemporary factors influencing the making of social policy and introduces the student to processes used to identify and solve social problems. Special attention is given to the relationships of values to social policy and the impact of social policy decisions on the provision of social and human services. Approaches to the analysis of social policy are examined. Prerequisite: Any 200 Level Sociology course or permission by the department chair.

SOC406 - Selected Topics in the Lives of Women

This capstone course examines topics important to the study of women’s issues. Representative topics that might be covered include violence against women, women in public life, social policy related to women, women and work, and reproductive issues. Prerequisite: one of the following: SOC 102, PSYC 303, or HIST 203.

SOC408 - Special Topics in Sociology

This course examines different topics from a sociological perspective with the goal of allowing faculty and students to explore issues that meet special interests. Courses could be offered at the 200, 300, or 400 levels, depending on the required and announced prerequisites.

Melissa Varao

Associate Dean, School of Business; Associate Professor of Hospitality and Event Management

Office: DeArment

Jeffrey Corcoran

Associate Professor of Management

Office: DeArment House

Janet Huetteman

Assistant Professor of Marketing, Graduate Program Coordinator for Business

Office: 26 Maple

Tulin Johansson

Associate Professor of Economics

Office: DeArment

Bruce McKinnon

Assistant Professor of Entrepreneurship

Office: 26 Maple

Matthew Reilly

Assistant Professor of Marketing, Program Director of Business

Office: 26 Maple

Donna Scipione

Assistant Professor of Accounting

Office: DeArment

Anh Le Tran

Associate Professor of Economics and Management

Office: DeArment

Nancy Waldron

Associate Professor of Marketing

Office: DeArment

Martin Walsh

Associate Professor of Management

Office: DeArment

Robert Zuar

Visiting Assistant Professor of Accounting

Office: DeArment

BUSS101 - Contemporary Issues in Business

This course is designed to familiarize students with various aspects of the business world. Areas covered include: private enterprise, forms of ownership, legal aspects, management, marketing, human resources, operations management, labor relations, and finance. In addition, students become aware of how business functions are integrated into an organization to achieve specific goals.

BUSS201 - Financial Accounting

This course provides students with the fundamentals of accounting processes and procedures used in business. Students learn how to identify and record business transactions. In addition, students learn how to create financial statements and how to become intelligent users of financial information.

BUSS202 - Managerial Accounting

In this course, students gain experience in the development and use of information within an organization. Course topics include: cost terms; production costing; cost allocation for planning and control; cost behavior patterns; cost-volume-profit relationships; budgeting; inventory planning and control; pricing decisions; and aspects of investment decisions. Prerequisite: BUSS 201 with a grade C or better.

BUSS203 - Financial Management

This course provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of finance. Various techniques of analysis that reveal the relationships of risk, return, and value are demonstrated. Topics include: financial reporting; long- and short-term forecasting; managing working capital; capital budgeting; and the nature of corporate securities and debt-equity mix. Prerequisites: BUSS 202 with a grade C or better & ECON 102.

BUSS205 - Legal Environment of Business

This course provides a working knowledge of everyday law as it applies to both business and personal needs. The primary focus is on contract law and property law.

BUSS212 - Management Information Systems

This course takes a managerial approach to information technology concepts and applications. Given the pervasiveness of technology in today's world, professionals in various fields of endeavor often have a major responsibility for determining an organization's information needs and for designing and implementing information systems that support those needs. Students study concepts and issues related to information technology with the goal of understanding how it can be effectively used to improve an organization's over­all effectiveness and increase it's level of success. Prerequisite: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, SMGT102, or FASH101.

BUSS220 - Marketing

In this course, the fundamentals of marketing are explored for practical application in today's business environment. The process of creating value for customers by utilizing the tools of marketing -- market segmentation, targeting and positioning, marketing research and communications, product development, channels of distribution, and pricing -- are explored with a project-based, interactive approach. Additionally, there is a service learning component included in this course that enables students to further apply the course concepts while working to advance a participating non-profit organization. Prerequisites: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, FASH101, or SMGT102 AND ECON101.

BUSS224 - Organizational Behavior

In this course, students study individuals and their interactions within group settings as they affect efficiencies in business organizations. Group dynamics and intergroup dynamics are emphasized in relation to productivity and work satisfaction along with the examination of specific aspects of organizations that influence behavior. Areas covered include structure, leadership, and change. Teaching modalities include case studies and role-playing. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisite: PSYC101 or SOC101 or COM101

BUSS231 - Entrepreneurship & Venture Creation

Entrepreneurship drives global innovation and economic growth. This course exposes business students to the study of entrepreneurship and the venture creation process. Topics include analyzing new business opportunities, developing business propositions, new venture planning and financing, marketing activities, financial controls, and other topics relevant to the entrepreneurial process. Students interact with faculty, local entrepreneurs, and small business owners/managers. As a culmination activity of this course, students are responsible for the development and presentation of a business plan. Prerequisite: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, FASH101 or SMGT102

BUSS232 - Operations Strategy

This course examines how operations can be used as sources of competitive advantage. The class will focus on understanding the need to formulate an operational strategy (long-term plan) and making strategic operational decisions. The old view of operations management as the task of maintaining a comparatively static production or service facility has given way to one characterized by a need for renewed flexibility, relentless improvement, and the development of new capabilities at the operating unit level. As a result of this changing environment, the skills required of operations managers have changed as well. This course is based primarily on case studies supported by conceptual frameworks. Prerequisite: BUSS101

BUSS336 - Human Resource Management

In this course, students will examine the staffing function of management including planning, recruitment, selection, training, motivation, appraisal, compensation, labor laws, and organizational development. The course also addresses current issues affecting the human resource manager, including the changing work force and need to increase productivity, as well as changes in the area of unions and affirmative action. Both class discussions and case studies are used to prepare students for the personnel and related tasks involved in a management position. Prerequisite: BUSS224

BUSS337 - Managing the Growing Company

This course focuses on the challenges and opportunities of managing a growing entrepreneurial venture. Using practical management techniques, students address the management of rapidly growing entrepreneurial firms. Through a variety of learning activities, including case studies, reading, and visiting entrepreneurs, students examine companies, often family-run, during dynamic transition. The course specifically addresses the challenges faced by companies in various stages of growth and the exceptional challenges of rapid growth. Prerequisites: BUSS 201 & BUSS 231.

BUSS425 - Special Topics in Entrepreneurship

This seminar offers an in-depth exploration of advanced entrepreneurship topics of current interest and importance. Using case studies and actual entrepreneurial ventures, students explore entrepreneurship with a focus on leadership, marketing, development, management, and growth of new business ventures. Students learn the practical skills needed to succeed as an entrepreneur and how to apply best practices for planning, initiating, and growing new companies. The course also emphasizes the analysis and evaluation of actual entrepreneurial ventures. Subjects vary from semester to semester. Prerequisites: BUSS 337 and Senior standing.

BUSS440 - Business Policy

This capstone course requires students to apply a broad knowledge of management and administrative techniques to specific situations. An emphasis is placed on strategy formulation and implementation. The case study method is used. This course culminates in a formal professional presentation to industry professionals. This is a writing intensive course. Prerequisite: Senior standing and Accounting, Entrepreneurship, Finance, International Business, Management or Marketing Major

BUSS497 - Business Internship Seminar

This internship for Entrepreneurship, International Business, Management and Marketing students is scheduled to take place during the student's senior year (juniors are permitted with permission). Students serve as interns for a total of 144 hours in a position related to their field of study. The hours are completed concurrently with weekly class meetings and course work. Detailed reports, reflective excersizes, weekly journal entries, a final comprehensive project, and other written requirements are completed throughout the internship process. The internship supervisor monitors each student's performance and visits each internship site as needed. Prerequisite: Business101 and Junior or Senior Standing

ECON101 - Principles of Econ-Micro

This course is an introduction to the principles of the economic behavior of individuals, firms, and industries in the mixed economic system. Topics include consumer demand; elasticity; supply and costs of production; the allocation of economic resources; international trade; and the role of government in promoting economic welfare.

ECON102 - Principles of Econ-Macro

This course explores basic functions of the United States economy viewed as a whole and policies designed to affect its performance. Topics include economic scarcity; causes of unemployment and inflation; money and monetary policy; the impact of government taxation and spending; and the federal debt. Some consideration is given to international economic problems and to contrasting economic systems. Prerequisite: ECON 101.

MATH205 - Calculus I

This course is an introduction to limits, continuity, and methods of differentiation. Application to problems in business management and physical science is emphasized. Prerequisite: MATH 203 with a grade of C or better or demonstrated competency through placement testing. Restrictions: not open to students who have completed MATH 206, or any 300 level mathematics courses.

MATH208 - Statistics

This is an introductory course in descriptive and inferential statistics. Topics include: data analysis, and graphical methods of describing data, measures of central tendency and variability, probability, the normal distribution, sampling distributions, confidence intervals, hypothesis testing, correlation, and regression analysis. Prerequisites: MATH 106 with a grade of C or better or demonstrated competency through placement testing and ENG 102.

BUSS208 - Financial Statement Analysis

In this course, students will examine financial statements and other financial reports with a view towards using accounting information in making investing, lending, and other potential management decisions. Students explore methods of constructing, comparing, and analyzing these statements and reports and the various uses of such analyses. Prerequisite: BUSS202 with a grade of C or higher

BUSS235 - Ethics in Business

This course analyzes ethical issues that arise in a wide range of contemporary business practices, both domestically and globally. It is designed to stimulate critical thinking on ethical issues, corporate social responsibility, and professional challenges encountered in business. The course material enables students to recognize and manage ethical issues and to develop their own standards of integrity and professionalism as applied to the business world. Prerequisite: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, FASH101, or SMGT102

BUSS237 - Contemporary Global Leadership

In this course, students analyze what it means to be a global leader in the 21st century and identify the skills necessary to be successful in an increasingly global business climate. Students explore this question personally, collectively, and globally in a creative and collaborative atmosphere. Students examine classic as well as contemporary theories of leadership and how they apply to the dynamic global business culture. The course provides students with the opportunity to acquire perspectives and skills essential to successful management in the emerging markets that are increasingly becoming key contenders in world commercial enterprise. Prerequisite BUSS 224.

BUSS315 - Emerging Global Markets

This course focuses on developing skills, strategies and insights crucial to conducting successful business operations in the emerging markets of Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Africa, including the BRIC countries of Brazil, Russia, India and China. Globalization offers these countries the opportunity for unprecedented economic development. By participating in the international marketplace, emerging countries increase their chances of raising wages and incomes, accumulating wealth, and reducing poverty. These countries also provide opportunities for companies, mostly from developed countries, to extend their markets. In this course, students study the institutions of emerging markets that are relevant for managers; explore the differences in the contexts and roles of various actors (such as the government and NGOs); analyze opportunities and risks presented by emerging markets; and analyze the strategies of firms dealing with emerging markets. Prerequisite: BUSS101

BUSS322 - Marketing Communications

This course focuses on a broad view of advertising dealing with planning, creation, and execution in relation to the marketing cycle. Topics include: organization and operation of the advertising agency; publicity; public relations; behavioral sciences as applied to advertising; budgeting; and planning. Prerequisite: BUSS220

BUSS324 - E-Business

This course explores, in detail, how the Internet affects the buying and selling of goods and services in the marketplace. Topics include Internet and mobile business models, electronic commerce infrastructure issues, designing effective web sites, payment and security issues, and the legal and ethical challenges of electronic commerce. The course will culminate in the development of an e-business plan and webpage. Prerequisite: BUSS101, HEM101, HEM102, FASH101 or SMGT102

BUSS329 - New Product Development

New products and services are crucial to successful growth and increased profits in many industries. A major goal of this course is to help students learn to use an analytic decision-making approach in developing and marketing new products and services that meet customer needs in the consumer, industrial, and service settings. At the end of the course, the student should understand the role of decision models in analytic marketing decision-making; be able to follow the basic steps in opportunity identification, design, testing, and implementation; and know how to read and interpret new product and service market research. Prerequisite: BUSS220

BUSS330 - Managing Change

This course examines the unique problems associated with managing organizations during mergers, reorganizations, and other times of change. Strategies to cope with change, as well as induce it, are examined. Prerequisite: BUSS 224.

BUSS341 - Social Media Marketing

This course takes an in-depth look at social networks, social media platforms and online advertising to offer students an advantage in many positions involving marketing, consulting and brand management, both on the buyer and seller side of social media. Students with an interest in entrepreneurship will also find the course useful as new businesses often rely on social media marketing. The course covers a number of topics including the differences and interaction between traditional and social media; two-sided markets and social media platforms (including verticals such as gaming, shopping and entertainment); basic theory of social networks online and offline (graph theory, sociology, information diffusion); consumer behavior and digital media; social media analytics and monitoring; brand strategies on social media; best marketing practices for paid and unpaid social media; and B2B marketing and social media. Additionally, students will have the opportunity to become Hubspot certified. Prerequisite: BUSS220

BUSS422 - Global Marketing

The complexity of operating in the global marketplace makes many demands on the marketer. The globalization of marketing takes place after the company has international experience in multiple markets. The three fundamental areas of corporate globalization are covered in this course: (1) integrate sourcing, production, and marketing; (2) allocate resources to achieve a balanced portfolio and growth; and (3) coordinate marketing activities across countries and regions. Importing, exporting, and licensing considerations are also explored. Prerequisite: BUSS220 with a grade of C or better.

PSYC101 - Psychological Perspectives (KP)

In this course, students learn to think like psychologists as they study classic and contemporary topics in human behavior, feeling, and thought. Students learn to apply psychological perspectives of thought, including biological, cognitive, sociocultural, humanistic, psychodynamic, and behaviorist, to better understand the human experience. Students will learn to use these perspectives to explore how individual behavior is influenced by and influences one’s biology, family, community and society. Topics may include human development, personality, psychopathology, human relationships, language, memory, perceptual processes, and intelligence, among others.

SOC101 - Sociological Imagination (KP)

In this course we explore the connection between our personal troubles and public issues. How are our lives shaped by our social positions in society – our social class, race, gender, sexual orientation, age, and more? How do the members of different groups view each other and interact with each other? Why do inequalities exist and how do these affect us? How does culture shape our behavior, and why do religions, schools, families, and other institutions remain stable but also change over time?